Understand HSRP States and HSRP State Transitions

HSRP States  In HSRP process, Router will go through the below states and finally Router will stay in Active or Standby or Listen state. An HSRP router can be in one of six different states. • Initial • Learn • Listen • Speak  • Standby • Active  Initial State This is first and starting state, The initial state indicates that HSRP does not run. This state is entered via a configuration change or when an interface first comes up. Learn State The router is neither in the active or standby state, nor does it have enough information to attempt to claim the active or standby role. Listen State The router knows the virtual IP address of HSRP group, but the router is neither the active router nor the standby router. It listens for hello messages from those routers. Speak State The router sends periodic hello messages and actively participates in […]

Switchport Port-Security Violation Options in Cisco Switch

Understand Swithport Port-Security Cisco layer 2 switch maintains the MAC address-table and it forwards a frames to destination based on MAC address table. We can enable a Switchport Port Security feature by allowing the specific Ethernet MAC address connected to the switch port. If any other MAC address tries to communicate through the same Switch port, port security will disable the port. Most of the time, network administrators configure the switch to send a SNMP trap to their network monitoring solution that the port’s disabled for security reasons. When using port security, you can prevent devices from accessing the network, which increases security. If any devices tried to connect to same switch port, there are three port security violation options available in Cisco Switch, based on your requirement you can enable any option for the switch port. There are three port security violation options are restrict, protect and shutdown, If […]

Most Frequent Interview Questions for Network Engineers

Find below most frequently asked interview questions for Network Engineers in  most of  the multinational companies in India. Most Frequent Interview Quetions for Network Engineer Position: 1. OSI Layers 2. What is VLAN? 3. What is VTP? 4. How we can change VTP revision number 5. In what mode we will add a switch in VTP domain 6. Difference between loadsharing & loadbalancing 7. What is ACS server, syslog server 8. How to add node in hpnnm – nnm 9. How to add a node group in nnm 10. What is use of AAA and how we will configure it? 11. How many modules will be there in 7609? 12. What type of ports are available in 7609 router 13. Difference between HSRP and VRRP 14. How data flows in MPLS technology 15. OSPF states while forming neighborship 16. OSPF LSA types 17. Difference between point to point & MPLS links […]

What is the difference between HSRP preempt and VRRP preempt

To decide an Active/Master Router, We have to enable preempt, configure priorities and Configure highest IP address on the Routers in the HSRP or VRRP group. In case of VRRP, Router which owns the IP address for the VRRP group is always becomes a Master Router. I thought the only the difference between HSRP and VRRP in case of preempt is Preempt ON by default in VRRP. The Router which is configured with the maximum configurable priority value of 254 in VRRP, that Router would become the master Router. This is not always true. There are some of the rules influence the Master and Preempt in VRRP, Find the difference between HSRP and VRRP in case preempt and Active/Master Router. Difference between HSRP Preempt and VRRP Preempt a)   In VRRP preempt enabled by default, In HSRP Preempt disabled by default. b)   In VRRP, In case priority is equal between Routers, […]

How to Backup HP ProCurve Switch Configuration using Console/Serial Cable

We should have maintain a configuration backup of every networking device, For any unexpected loss or destruction the configuration of a managed switch, we can easily restore or copy the configuration file into a new equipment. For HP ProCurve Networking  Switch(switches ProCurve 2910, 2510 series, etc.), one of the way to backup and restore is done through a serial port rs 232/Console cable using a hyper terminal connection. Step by step HP ProCurve Configuration Backup via Console Cable Suppose HP ProCurve Switch has been connected to the computer serial port via console cable and use the hyper terminal and you have logged in to HP ProCurve Switch as an administrator. Step 1:  •  Enter copy startup-config xmodem pc on HP Procurve Switch. • Click on the Transfer in  HyperTerminal menu and then select Receive File             Step 2: • Browse the location to save the file • […]

Difference between config.text and startup-config in Cisco Switch

Probably every one thinking  the config.text file contains the password definitions and Startup-config file contains the startup configuration, and config.text file saved in flash but the startup-config is saved in NVRAM. Above saved locations correct but the config.text file and startup-config are the same files with exactly same size.  I uploaded both config.text and startup-config to my TFTP server and tried to find differences between them. Both exactly the same and there no difference. Find the Config.text on Cisco Switch  Cisco-Switch#sh flash Directory of flash:/ 2 -rwx 3722814 Mar 07 1993 19:27:13 +00:00 c2950-i6k2l2q4-mz.121-22.EA14.bin 4 -rwx 1048 Mar 01 1993 01:41:49 +00:00 multiple-fs 5 -rwx 314 Mar 07 1993 19:34:02 +00:00 env_vars 6 -rwx 4635 Mar 01 1993 01:41:49 +00:00 config.text 7 drwx 832 Mar 01 1993 00:04:15 +00:00 html 21 -rwx 109 Mar 01 1993 00:04:17 +00:00 info 22 -rwx 109 Mar 01 1993 00:04:17 +00:00 info.ver 23 -rwx 45 Mar 01 1993 […]