RSSAll Entries in the "Routing" Category

How to upgrade Cisco Router IOS using TFTP Server

Prerequisites This document covers IOS up gradation step by step process on Cisco Router. The Router should be up and running whose image needs to be upgraded and this document not intended for password recovery.  You make sure that new IOS image supports hardware, software features, Router has enough Flash memory to run the image and other memory & processor related specifications. If you do sure, go to the SoftwareCenter in the Technical Support area at and use the Hardware-Software compatibility matrix to determine the version of software which is suited. Any IOS up gradation or backup process first we will need to have TFTP server. This can be downloaded from Internet. There are several versions of TFTP available free (Free TFTP can be downloaded from ) Step 1  a)     Copy from CD or Download the Cisco IOS software image to your workstation or PC. b)     Install the […]

Cisco Router Configuration Commands for Quick Reference

Cisco Router Configuration Commands Requirement Cisco Command Set a console password to cisco Router(config)#line con 0 Router(config-line)#login Router(config-line)#password cisco Set a telnet password Router(config)#line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)#login Router(config-line)#password cisco Stop console timing out Router(config)#line con 0 Router(config-line)#exec-timeout 0 0 Set the enable password to cisco Router(config)#enable password cisco Set the enable secret password to peter.This password overrides the enable password and is encypted within the config file Router(config)#enable secret peter Enable an interface Router(config-if)#no shutdown To disable an interface Router(config-if)#shutdown Set the clock rate for a router with a DCE cable to 64K Router(config-if)clock rate 64000 Set a logical bandwidth assignment of 64K to the serial interface Router(config-if)bandwidth 64 Note that the zeroes are not missing To add an IP address to a interface Router(config-if)#ip addr To enable RIP on all 172.16.x.y interfaces Router(config)#router rip Router(config-router)#network Disable RIP Router(config)#no router rip To enable IRGP with a […]

Configure Route descriptions in Cisco IOS

You can configure descriptions for static Route on Cisco Router with the name keyword in the ip route command. Find ip route command options with help on Cisco Router. Router(config)# ip route ?   <1-255>    Distance metric for this route   name       Specify name of the next hop   permanent  permanent route   tag        Set tag for this route   track      Install route depending on tracked item   <cr> The following example shows that using the name <next-hop-name> keyword and argument combination for each static route in the configuration helps you remember the purpose for each static route. Router(config)# ip route name Hyd2Pune Description on Static Route is an optional command and But it’s very simple and quite useful. It is very useful in easy understanding and troubleshooting purpose. For more command reference for IOS release 12.2.

Cisco – BGP Peer/Neighbor/Adjacency States

I covered BGP Peer/Neighbor states. This will allow you to successfully analyze and troubleshoot BGP peer relationships and states. BGP goes through the following states when establishing a BGP session with neighbor. Idle State: Idle state is the initial state of a BGP connection. Router is searching Routing table to see whether a Route exits to reach the neighbor. Connect State: Router found a Route to the neighbor and it will complete the three-way TCP handshake. The BGP speaker is waiting for a start event, generally either the establishment of a TCP connection or the re-establishment of a previous connection. Once the connection is established, BGP moves to the next state. Open sent State: Open message sent to peer with the parameters for the BGP session. Open confirm State: Router received agreement on the parameters for establishing session, the state moves to Established and the neighbor relationship is complete. Active […]

Default Administrative Distance of all Routing Protocols

What is Administrative Distance? Administrative distance is the feature that all Routers use to select the best path when there are two or more different routes to the same destination from two or more different Routing protocols like RIP, EIGRP or OSPF etc. Administrative distance is a measure of the trustworthiness of the source of the Routing information. Administrative distance is the first criterion that a Router uses to determine which routing protocol to use if two protocols provide route information for the same destination. Administrative distance has only local significance and is not advertised in any routing updates. Administrative Distance list of All Routing Protocols: Cisco Routers supports many static and dynamic Routing protocols for learning routes in a complex network topology. The Cisco Routers supported the following Routing protocols. Static RIP OSPF BGP IS-IS IGRP EIGRP Each Routing protocol has its own Administrative Distance (AD), which is a […]

Comparision and Difference between Dynamic IP Routing Protocols

Comparision and Difference between all  Dynamic IP Routing Protocols In this post I covered the comparison between all IGP dynamic IP Routing protocols like RIPv1, RIPv2, OSPF and EIGRP with all important specifications. RIP Version 1 RIP Version 2 OSPF EIGRP Name Routing Information Protocol Routing Information Protocol – v2 Open Shortest Path First Enhanced Exterior Gateway Routing Protocol Type Distance Vector Distance Vector Link State Hybrid Protocol Open Standard Open Standard Open Standard Cisco Proprietary Metric Hop Count Hop Count Cost Composite – BW & Delay Maximum Hop Count Max Hop Count 15 Max Hop Count 15 Unlimited 255 AD 120 120 110 90 – internal170 – External Update Timer Every 30 Sec Every 30 Sec Triggered Triggered Update Type Broadcast ( Multicast ( Multicast ( Multicast ( Scalability Not Scalable  Not Scalable Scalable Scalable Authentication No Yes Yes Yes Load Balancing Equal Equal Equal Equal and Unequal Convergence […]